The San Bernardino terror attack that killed 14 on Wednesday was the deadliest America has seen on its own soil since Sept. 11, 2001.
The perpetrators, husband-and-wife duo Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik, reportedly pledged allegiance to the Islamic State (ISIS), and may have been in contact with other suspected terrorists.
Gathered below are 13 other terror attacks with connections to radical Islam that have happened in the U.S. since 9/11.
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1. Beltway Sniper attacks
— John Allen Muhammad and his teenage accomplice Lee Boyd Malvo killed 10 people over three weeks in October 2002 in the Washington, D.C., metro area, including an FBI analyst. According to The New York Times, during Muhammad's trial
, "All seven justices agreed that Mr. Muhammad's conviction under a previously untested terrorism law was appropriate." During the legal proceedings for Malvo, he presented a judge with dozens of anti-American sketches. They depicted Osama bin Laden, Saddam Hussein, and The White House in crosshairs, The Baltimore Sun reported
2. UNC vehicle attack
— Nine students were injured on March 3, 2006, when Iran-native Mohammad Reza Taheri-azar drove a Jeep into a crowd of students in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. According to CNN
, police said the young man said he wanted to "avenge the deaths of Muslims around the world." In his writings from jail, Taheri-azar said, "I was aiming to follow in the footsteps of one of my role models, Mohammad Atta, one of the 9/11/01 hijackers, who obtained a doctorate degree," referencing his intention to pursue a psychology degree.
3. Seattle Jewish Center shooting
— On July 28, 2006, Pakistani-American Naveed Afzal Haq, shot six women at the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle, killing one. Haq, who expressed anti-Semitic and anti-Western views during the 911 call leading to his capture, was convicted of aggravated first-degree murder. King County prosecutor Dan Satterberg said upon his conviction, "The jury said that we want to live in a diverse . . . community and that hate crimes have no place here. The jury said that holding extremist views does not make you insane," reported SeattlePi.com
4. Little Rock Military Recruiting Center shooting
— Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad, a Muslim convert from Memphis, killed one soldier in a drive-by shooting on a military recruiting station in Little Rock, Arkansas, on June 1, 2009. He appeared to be a violent jihadist who self-radicalized after traveling to Yemen, The New York Times reported
. He claimed ties to al-Qaida, but they have not been confirmed.
5. Fort Hood shooting
— Nidal Hasan, a U.S. Army major and psychiatrist, killed 13 and injured more than 30 people during a shooting rampage in Texas on November 5, 2009. In seven pages of handwritten thoughts sent to Fox News
, Hasan referred to himself as a "Soldier of Allah," and appeared to renounce his American citizenship.
6. Attempted Times Square bombing
— Pakistan-born Faisal Shahzad ignited a bomb he'd placed in a vehicle parked in New York's Times Square on May 1, 2010, but it failed to explode. The deadly plot was foiled by two street vendors, and authorities disarmed the bomb. Shahzad, who then-Attorney General Eric Holder said was reportedly trained by the Taliban in Pakistan, was sentenced to life in prison after pleading guilty to a number of charges, including attempting an act of terrorism, The Wall Street Journal reported
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7. Portland car bomb plot
— On November 26, 2010, Somali-American student Mohamed Osman Mohamud attempted to set off a car bomb at a Christmas tree lighting in Portland, Oregon. He was unaware that the plot was part of an FBI sting operation, and that the bomb was a fake, USA Today reported
. He reportedly believed he was working with a larger "ring of jihadists," but they were actually undercover law enforcement agents.
8. Boston Marathon bombing
— Three were killed and more than 200 injured on April 15, 2013, when brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev set off pressure-cooker bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. Two police officers were killed as the result of firefights related to the subsequent manhunt for the Tsarnaevs. According to The New York Times
, the brothers appear to have learned to build bombs by reading the online English-language magazine of the affiliate of al-Qaida in Yemen.
9. Oklahoma Vaughn Foods beheading
— Alton Nolen, a production line employee at the Vaughn Foods processing plant in Moore, Oklahoma, allegedly beheaded a coworker and stabbed and injured another on September 24, 2014. According to CNN
, Nolan appeared to have converted to Islam during a prison stint, and had reportedly tried to convert coworkers to Islam. He also glorified jihad on Facebook.
10. Queens, New York, hatchet attack
— Zale H. Thompson, an African-American who'd converted to Islam two years prior, attacked four New York City Police Department (NYPD) officers on October 23, 2014, with a hatchet, injuring three before being shot dead by one of the officers. According to Reuters
, Thompson "had made anti-Western postings on social media and visited websites associated with several radical Islamic groups, police said at a news conference."
11. Slaying of two NYPD officers
— On Dec. 20, 2014, Ismaaiyl Brinsley ambushed NYPD officers Wenjian Liu and Rafael Ramos, killing them with a 9-millimeter pistol, after alluding to the high-profile police-related deaths of Michael Brown and Eric Garner on social media. "Brinsley’s abandoned YouTube channel contained a video showing him heading to pray at Brooklyn’s Masjid At Taqwa, a mosque that has been linked to terrorist and anti-police activity," The Daily Caller reported
. Brinsley shot and killed himself shortly after killing the officers.
12. Texas art show shooting
— Would-be killers Elton Simpson and Nadir Hamid Soofi shot a security guard in the ankle at the "First Annual Muhammad Art Exhibit and Contest" on May 3, 2015, before being shot and killed themselves by a quick-thinking Garland police officer, The Dallas Morning News reported
. The Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attack, and both gunmen pledged allegiance to the terrorist group on Twitter before being killed.
13. Chattanooga Recruiting Center shootings
— Muhammad Youssef Abdulazeez staged drive-by shootings on a military recruiting center and a U.S. Navy Reserve center on July 16, 2015, killing five. The perpetrator himself, a Jordanian citizen born in Kuwait and naturalized in the U.S., "searched the Internet in the days leading up to the attack for Islamic materials about whether martyrdom would lead to forgiveness for his sins, like drunkenness and financial debt, according to law enforcement officials," The New York Times reported
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