Kidneys are vital organs of the excretory system that function to excrete waste products from the body and maintain its fluid balance. Kidneys filter a lot of toxic material, which makes them prone to infections. E. coli and klebsiella infections are mainly responsible for severe pyelonephritis (kidney and ureter infection) that leads to renal failure. Severe kidney infections impair its functions and can cause renal failure, which requires procedures to take over eliminatory functions.
Renal diseases are characterized by swelling, pain, and scanty or frequent urination. Kidney dialysis is indicated in renal disorders. This procedure is advised in the later stages of renal disorders, metabolic acidosis, poisoning, and uremia. Infections, diabetes, and high blood pressure commonly affect renal functions. When renal functions are disturbed to the extent that it becomes necessary to clear the waste buildup artificially, kidney dialysis is performed. Renal function test, alternatively known as kidney function test, provides information about how the kidney is functioning. A renal function test is required to assess the renal impairment and progress of the disease.
There are two main types of kidney dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. This technique removes kidney wastes and drains excess fluid from the body. In hemodialysis, the equipment is connected through a blood vessel. Peritoneal dialysis is performed through the lining of the abdominal cavity. The results of renal function test are important to determine whether a dialysis is advisable. Renal functions improve significantly after the dialysis.
Dialysis has a long history of use. Sufferers of end stage renal failure use it very frequently.
Though the procedure is safe and has improved over the years, it can be associated with some complications like low blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, or headache.
- Hypotension can be relieved by slightly raising the feet of the patient.
- Patients may feel tired and depressed while on dialysis.
- Some patients complain of cramps due to loss of fluid and salt during the dialysis. Irregular heartbeats are also a complaint.
- The access (fistula) for attaching the dialysis machine may become a site of infection.
- Chronic hemodialysis patients are at a constant risk of developing infection. These infections are known as health care-associated infections.
- The site of catheter is also at a risk of bleeding during the procedure.
- Frequent use of catheters can cause infections.
- A weakened immune system also makes patients of kidney disease prone to infections.
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