Leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma are types of blood cancers determined by the cells they affect. Acute myeloid leukemia is a disorder or cancer of the blood occurring in myeloid cells. AML cancer accounts for 1.2 percent of cancer deaths in the U.S. In AML cancer, the white blood cells grow rapidly and accumulate in the bone marrow, hampering the production of normal blood cells. Acute myeloid leukemia, also known as acute myelogenous leukemia, is the most common blood cancer. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia increases with age.
The common symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia are breathing difficulty, bleeding, fatigue and infection. AML has a gloomy prognosis as the survival rates fall rapidly within weeks. There are various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia having differing prognosis and survival rates. Though chemotherapy has improved the prognosis and increased the survival rate of the AML sufferers, patients may relapse, sometimes fatally, into acute myeloid leukemia. Cytogenetics or the chromosomal structure of leukemic cells gives valuable information for closer prognosis of cancer. Certain abnormal types of cytogenetics are linked with very poor prognosis and relapse into acute myeloid leukemia. A condition known as myelodysplastic syndrome also makes the prognosis of AML poor.
However, in promyelocytic leukemia, the prognosis of survival rate is hopeful. About 90 percent of cases of acute leukemia found in adult are AML, but rare in children. In the absence of a treatment, AML survival rate is really poor, as the disease progresses fast. AML that spreads to testicles, lymph nodes, brain, spleen, and liver has very poor prognosis. This blood cancer has good survival rates if the sufferer is less than 60 years, and without any history of other cancers or abnormal cytogenetics. In the last decade, the survival rates for AML have gone up due to better management of the condition. The people who respond to the medications generally have better prognosis and survival rate. Survival rates are low in patients who develop AML after treatments of other cancers. According to a study, 25 percent of adults with acute myeloid leukemia have survival rate of at least five years.
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